animated goddess mdbs banner animated goddess


MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Disorders

CARDIAC-CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Anatomy & Description


For "Informational Use Only".
For more detailed information, contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Cardiac-Circulatory System Description
  • Cardiovascular Structure & Function
  • The Blood
  • The Heart
  • The Cardiac Cycle
  • The Blood Vessels




  • CARDIAC-CIRCULATORY SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

    The cardiac-circulatory system may be thought of as a transportation system. It takes nourishment and oxygen to the cells and carries away waste products. The closed system is kept in motion by the force of the heartbeat. Diseases that attack any part of this system interfere with the overall function. Long-standing diseases of the cardiovascular system eventually affect the pulmonary system as well.



    CARDIOVASCULAR STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

    The organs of the cardiovascular system include:
      1. HEART: A central pumping station.
      2. BLOOD VESSLES
        A. ARTERIES: Tubes that carry blood away from the heart.
        • They have muscular, elastic walls with smooth linings.
        • They branch to form arterioles with thinner walls. Arterioles then become capillaries.
        • They carry blood with high concentration of nutrients and oxygen (O2) to the body cells.

        arteries

        Major Arteries of the Body


        B. VEINS: Tubes that carry blood toward the heart.
        • They have thinner muscular walls.
        • They carry blood back to the heart.
        • They carry blood with a lower concentration of oxygen, more carbon dioxide (CO2), and more waste products.
        • They have cup-like valves that help move the blood.

        veins

        Major Veins of the Body


        C. CAPILLARIES: Tubes that connect arteries and veins.
        • They have walls only one cell thick.
        • They are the site of exchange of nutrients and oxygen from the blood to the cells, and carbon dioxide and waste products from the cells to the blood.

      3. LYMPHATIC VESSELS: Tubes that carry lymph or tissue fluid to the blood stream. Fluid from the blood stream passes into the tissue spaces, where it is called tissue fluid. Some of the tissue fluid returns to the bloodstream by way of the capillaries. Some of it is first drawn off into the lymphatic vessels, where it is called lymph. Eventually the lymph is returned to general circulation and once more becomes part of the blood.

      4. LYMPH NODES: Masses of lymphatic tissue along the pathway of the lymph. They filter the lymph.

      5. SPLEEN: A lymphatic organ. The spleen produces some of the blood cells and helps destroy worn-out blood cells. It acts as a blood reservoir or blood bank.

      6. BLOOD: A connective tissue made up of a liquid (plasma) and cellular elements.





    THE BLOOD

    Blood is a red body fluid composed of plasma and cellular elements. The body contains 4 to 6 quarts (liters) of blood.

    PLASMA

    Plasma forms 55 percent of the blood and is the liquid watery solution containing:
    • Antibodies (gamma globulins) - chemicals to fight infection.
    • Nutrients - such as glucose, amino acids, fats, and salts.
    • Gases - such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    • Waste products - such as urea and creatine.

    BLOOD CELLS

    The blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and lymphatic tissues of the body. The bone marrow, liver, and spleen destroy worn-out blood cells. The red blood cells include red blood cells, white blood cells, and thrombocytes.
    • Red Blood Cells (RBC): Called erythrocytes, carry most of the oxygen and small amounts of carbon dioxide. There are 4.5 to 5 million RBC per cubic millimeter (mm3).

    • White Blood Cells (WBC): Called leukocytes, fight infection. There are 7,000 to 8,000 WBC/ mm3.

    • Thrombocytes: Also called platelets, are not whole cells but only parts of cells. They seal small leaks in the walls of blood vessels and initiate blood clotting. There are 200,000 to 400,000 thrombocytes/mm3.
    blood





    THE HEART

    The heart is a hollow muscular organ about the size of fist. It is divided into a right and left side by a muscular wall called the septum and into four chambers. There are 3 layers in the heart wall. The endocardium lines the heart chambers. The myocardium is the muscle layer. The pericardium is a membranous outer coating.

    THE FOUR CHAMBERS
    1. THE RIGHT ATRIUM (RA): Right upper heart chamber receives blood from all over the body. This blood has a low oxygen content and a relatively high carbon dioxide level. It is called deoxygenated blood.

    2. THE RIGHT VENTRICLE (RV): Right lower heart chamber receives blood from the right atrium and sends it out to the lungs through the pulmonary artery to pick up oxygen and get rid of the carbon dioxide.

    3. THE LEFT ATRIUM (LA): Left upper heart chamber receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it to the left ventricle.

    4. THE LEFT VENTRICLE (LV): Left lower heart chamber receives oxygenated blood from left atrium and sends it out through the aorta to the entire body.

    THE VALVES

    Valves separate the chambers. They also guard the exit of the pulmonary artery and aorta to prevent backflow and maintain a constant forward motion. The pulmonary artery carries blood to the lungs. The aorta is the largest blood vessel in the body. The valves are located as follows:
    • TRICUSPID VALVE: The tricuspid valve is located between right atrium and right ventricle.

    • BICUSPID VALVE: The bicuspid (mitral) valve is located between left atrium and left ventricle.

    • PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVES: The pulmonary semilunar valves are located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery.

    • AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE: The aortic semilunar valve is located between left ventricle and aorta.

    heart external anatomy

    External view of the heart & blood vessels.


    NERVE IMPULSES & HEART CONTRACTIONS (HEART BEAT)

    Nerve impulses make the heart contract regularly according to body needs. For example, when you run, your body cells need more oxygen. The cells signal the brain that they need more oxygen. The brain sends a signal to the heart through the nerves, telling it to supply more blood. These nerve impulses cause the heart to beat faster. Thus, more oxygenated blood is pumped to the body cells to supply the oxygen required due to these impulses causing the heart to beat at a faster rate.





    heart anatomy

    Heart Anatomy & the Cardiac Cycle


    THE CARDIAC CYCLE

    The heart pumps blood through the body by a series of movements known as the cardiac cycle.
      1. First the upper chambers of the heart, called the atria, relax and fill with blood as the lower chambers contract, forcing blood out of the heart through the aorta and pulmonary arteries.

      2. Next, the lower chambers relax, allowing blood to flow into them from the contracting upper chambers.

      3. Then the cycle is repeated.

    cardiopulmonary anatomy

    Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs, to the body,
    and back to the heart to begin the cycle again.


    Each cycle lasts about 0.8 second. This happens about 70 to 80 times per minute in the average adult.

    The pulse you feel at the radial artery corresponds to the ventricular contraction. The sounds you hear when listening to the heart and when taking a blood pressure are the sounds made by the closing of the valves during the cardiac cycle.

    The rate and rhythm of the cardiac cycle are regulated by the conduction system. The conduction system is made up of special neuromuscular tissue that sends out impulses. The impulses eventually reach the myocardial cells, which respond by contracting.
    • The impulses begin at the S-A node in the right atrium and spread across the two atria.

    • The atria contract.

    • Impulses from the S-A node reach the A-V node in the right atrium.

    • Messages from the A-V node then spread through the bundle of His in the septum. From there they go through the Purkinje fibers to the walls of the ventricles.

    • The ventricles contract, forcing the blood forward.

    An electrocardiogram, called an ECG or an EKG, is a test that traces the electrical impulses of the heart. Heart disease may be detected with this test.





    BLOOD VESSELS

    Many large arteries and veins take their names from the bones they are near of from the part of the body they serve. For example, the femoral artery and vein run close to the femur (thigh bone). The subclavian arteries and veins are found under the clavicle. The axillary arteries and veins are found in the axillary (armpit) area.

    This figure shows the arterial system that distributes blood from the heart.

    This figure shows the venous system that returns blood to the heart.

    RELATED LINKS

    MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Diet Index
    MoonDragon's Women's Health Information: Smoking
    MoonDragon's Health Therapy: Biofeedback
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hypertension
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Cardiovascular Disease
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Cardiovascular Nutrition & Recommendations
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Introduction to the Circulatory System
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Common Heart Problems & Procedures
    MoonDragon's Health Care Information: Cardiovascular Patient Care
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: High Cholesterol
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hypothyroidism
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Raynaud's Phenomenon
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Varicose Veins






    MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |






    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







  • For a full list of available products from Mountain Rose Herbs, click on banner below:






    Starwest Botanicals




    HerbsPro Supplement Store


    HerbsPro




    Up to 70% Off Bath & Beauty - evitamins


    eVitamins








    Kalyx.com Herbs, Foods, Supplements, Bath & Body


    Chinese Herbs Direct


    Ayurvedic Herbs Direct


    Pet Herbs Direct


    TakeHerb.com


    Wild Divine - Stress relief training software and meditation.


    Aleva Health - Hosiery, Orthopedics, Wound Care, Support, Diabetic Socks


    ShareASale Merchant-Affiliate Program








    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




    Top