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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Disorders

CANCER
The Warning Signs & Possible Causes
of Certain Cancers


For "Informational Use Only".
For more detailed information, contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Cancer Description - Early Warning Signs & Factors
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Laryngeal Cancer
  • Leukemia
  • Lung Cancer
  • Lymphoma
  • Oral (Mouth) Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Skin Cancer
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Vaginal Cancer
  • Projected US Cancer Rates By State




  • cancer cells


    CANCER DESCRIPTION

    EARLY WARNING SIGNS & FACTORS

    Knowing the early warning signs and factors that increase the risk of developing different forms of cancer can save your life. The American Cancer Society estimates that of the 500,000 cancer deaths that occur in the United States each year, about one-third can be attributed to dietary factors, with another third being caused by cigarette smoking. Healthy lifestyle choices at any stage of life are a major step towards cancer prevention.

    The table below are descriptions of some of the major types of cancer. The indications, the risks and signs that have been associated with various types of cancer are summarized. If you experience one or more of the symptoms described, that does not necessarily mean you have cancer (many can be caused by other, less serious disorders as well), but you should consult your health care provider for an evaluation.


     
    BLADDER CANCER

  • Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in males, eighth most common in females, and fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. It is four times more common in men than women, twice as common in Caucasians as in African-Americans, and is usually diagnosed later in life.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • The cause of bladder cancer is not known. Smoking is the number one factor associated with bladder cancer. Also linked to bladder cancer is exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzidines, aniline dyes, naphthalenes; radiation exposure; heredity; excessive consumption of caffeine and/or artificial sweeteners such as saccharin; a history of schistosomiasis (a tropical disease); frequent chronic urinary tract infections or inflammation; and working in the dye, chemical rubber, and leather industries.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • Often symptoms do not appear in the early stages. The first warning sign is usually blood in the urine; pain & burning with urination; increased frequency of urination, and difficulty urinating.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • Bladder cancer can be detected by examining the bladder through a cystoscope, examining cells in the urine, or having intravenous pyeiography (IVP, a special kidney x-ray) performed. Sometimes a large tumor can be detected through a rectal or vaginal exam. Researchers are studying a new screening test that detects telomerase, an enzyme produced by bladder tumors.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • Cruciferous vegetables such as Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, and Kale have been credited with lowering the risk of bladder cancer due to their antioxidant and other cancer fighting compounds. Eating the USDA-recommended number of servings of fruits, such as apples, Berries, Cherries, Oranges, pears, and TomatoesPure Water, helps dilute carcinogens and increase urination, lessening the time any carcinogens in the bladder have to do any damage.

  • Taking Vitamin A, Beta-Carotene, Vitamin C, and a Multi-Vitamin have shown reductions in the risk of getting bladder cancer. Eat a diet rich in Vitamin E that includes Nuts (such as Almonds) and Olive Oil. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) from a health food store should be used. Commercial-grade DMSO such as that found in hardware stores is not suitable for healing purposes. Any contaminants on the ski or in the product can be taken into the tissues by action of the DMSO.

  • Note: The use of DMSO may result in a garlicky body odor. This is temporary, and is not a cause for concern.
  •  
    BREAST CANCER

  • See MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Breast Cancer for detailed information.
  •  
    CERVICAL CANCER

  • Invasive cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women and accounts for over 11 percent of all cancers in the world. The majority of cervical cancers grow gradually over several years with precancerous cells (dysplasia) existing previous to the cancer cells. If dysplasia is detected early enough and removed, cervical cancer can often be prevented.

  • See MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Cervical Cancer and MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Uterine Cancer for detailed information.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • Most cervical cancers are associated with infection with human papilloma viruses (HPV), which can be transmitted sexually. Associated risk factors include having more than 5 complete pregnancies; first intercourse before age 18; unprotected sex; sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhea, HIV, HPV, and genital herpes; early childbearing; multiple sex partners; infertility, low socioeconomic status; smoking; and nutritional deficiencies.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • Cervical cancer usually causes no symptoms until it is advanced, which is why it is essential for women to have regular pelvic exams and Pap tests. It can cause bleeding between menstrual periods; bleeding after intercourse or douching; unusual discharge; painful menstrual periods; and heavy periods.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • The presence of abnormal cells can be detected by a Pap test, followed up with a biopsy. Women should begin having annual pelvic exams and Pap tests when sexual activity begins, or at age 18 (after 3 or more normal exams, your health care provider may recommend decreasing the frequency of exams unless you have had dysplasia or at increased risk for other reasons). Screening for HPV is a method of early detection.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • A diet low in fatty meats (especially pork), red meat, cheeses, and white bread, and high in soy products, fruits, dark green vegetables, tomatoes, whole grains, and yogurt offers the best dietary protection. Shiitake Mushrooms are also a good source of protection.

  • If you do not consume 3 to 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, you should take Vitamin C (500 to 1,000 mg daily), Vitamin E, Vitamin A, and Beta-Carotene (25,000 to 50,000 IU daily) in supplemental form. Folic Acid, one of the B vitamins (400 to 800 mcg daily), can not only aid in prevention, but it has been known to reverse precancerous changes in cervical cells. Shark Cartilage may also be helpful in fighting or preventing cervical cancer.
  •  
    COLORECTAL CANCER

  • The large intestine is made up of the colon (the upper 5 to 6 feet) and the rectum (the last 6 to 8 inches). This is where the waste is held until it is released. Colorectal cancer is second only to lung cancer among cancers that kill both men and women (prostate cancer is number one for men and breast cancer number one for women). Mostly credited to an increase in screening for and removal of polyps, the incidence has been declining during the last decade.

  • By age 50, 10 percent of the population have polyps and by age 65 that number grows to 30 percent. If left untreated, 8 to 12 percent of polyps will become cancerous. If allowed to grow, a tumor can invade nearby organs. Once the disease enters the lymph nodes or bloodstream, it most often spreads to the liver. The American Cancer Society estimates that more than 130,000 Americans will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer in a given year, and more than 56,000 will die from the disease. It strikes men and women nearly equally. Colorectal cancer develops over a 10 to 15 year period and produces no symptoms until it is advanced. If the disease is detected early enough and the tumor has not metastasized, the survival rate is quite high. Patients whose tumors are entirely localized to the bowel have an 80 to 90 percent chance of surviving for 10 years. However, with tumors that have spread to the liver, the 5 year survival rate is less than 5 percent.

  • High blood levels of a protein linked to heart attacks might also be an early warning sign of colon cancer. The substance, C-reactive protein, is produced in the liver in response to infection anywhere in the body.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • A genetic defect is connected with some forms of familial colon cancer. Other causes are not known. Risk factors associated with colorectal cancer include calcium deficiency; colorectal polyps; family history of color cancer (Lynch syndrome); continued constipation and/or diarrhea; personal history of colon-related diseases or uterine or ovarian cancer, such as polyps, non-polyposis colon cancer, or inflammatory bowel disease; build-up of toxins in the colon; possibly diabetes; a diet high in saturated animal fat and low in fiber; high intake of charbroiled, burned, wood-smoked, or fried foods; obesity; smoking; alcohol consumption; and cancer in another part of the body. The consumption of white meat that has cooked at high temperatures and well-done red meat are associated with increased risk of rectal cancer among men. Many studies have shown that active people are not as likely to develop colon tumors as those who do not regularly engage in physical activity. Studies also show that women who eat diets high in beef, fats, desserts, and refined grains have an increased risk of colon cancer.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include rectal bleeding; blood in the stool; changes in bowel habits (persistent diarrhea, gas pains, and/or constipation); persistent abdominal pain or bloating; anemia or significant weight loss; unusual paleness or fatigue; and ulcerative colitis.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • Screening for colon cancer is the best way to detect polyps before they turn cancerous. During regular checkups (and annually after age 40), men and women should have a rectal exam. Beginning at age 50, one of the following tests should be performed along with a rectal exam:
    • 1. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): and flexible sigmoidoscopy. If normal, repeat the FOBT yearly and the flexible sigmoidoscopy at 5-year intervals.

      2. Colonoscopy: If normal, repeat at 10 year intervals.

      3. Double Contrast Barium Enema or Colon X-ray: If normal, repeat at 5 to 10 year intervals. If you have a personal history of inflammatory bowel disease, you should have a colonoscopy every 1 to 2 years. If you have a family history of colorectal cancer, you may have a genetic mutation that can lead to polyps and/or cancers developing at an early age, even in the teenage years. Investigate any family history of colon cancer and discuss proper screening guidelines with your health care provider.

      4. Virtual Colonoscopy: This is a new computer-assisted method that allows health care providers to visualize a person's colon just as if they were there. A small tube is inserted into the rectum and the colon is projected onto a computer screen and the health care provider "flies" through the length of the colon looking for lumps that might be cancerous. The test is non-invasive, usually takes less than 5 minutes, and involves much less discomfort than conventional methods of examining the colon. Sedation is seldom required and the patient can go home immediately after the procedure.

  • In addition, a test kit for detecting blood in the stool can be purchased at most drugstores. See MoonDragon's Cancer Self-Tests for more information.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • It was once believed that a high-fiber diet protects the colon by reducing the time any harmful carcinogens that are present in the stool are in contact with the intestinal wall. There have since been conflicting reports on this, but most health care providers still recommend a high-fiber, low-fat diet. A high-fat diet has a strong link with colon cancer.

  • Either a vegetarian diet or a diet low in red meat, alcohol, and refined foods and high in vegetables, fruits, soy, fish, whole-grain breads, and cereals, as well as low or non-fat dairy products and lots of fruit and vegetable juices offers optimum dietary protection. Garlic, Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussels Sprouts, Citrus fruits, melons, and dark green, red, and yellow vegetables are recommended for their antioxidant and sulfur compounds. Studies show that Aged Garlic (Kyolic) slows the rate of progression of established colon cancer cells. Tomatoes may lower risk. Consumption of chlorinated water has been linked to a greater incidence of colon cancer. Coffee has been reported to have positive effects on reducing colon cancer risk. Drink milk (unless you are lactose intolerant). studies show that drinking two 8-ounce glasses of milk daily may reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer by as much as 15 percent.

  • Beta-Carotene, Calcium (1,200 mg daily), Selenium, and Vitamin C and Vitamin E, and the long-term use of a Multi-Vitamin containing Folic Acid (above 400 mcg daily) have been linked to a reduced risk of colon cancer.

  • Lutein and Zeaxanthin, two of the carotenoids, help to protect the colon against colon cancer. They are found in dark green leafy vegetables such as Spinach, collard greens, Kale, Mustard greens, and turnip greens.

  • Probiotics (which can be found in yogurt and supplements) may inhibit colon cancer. Low levels of Vitamin D and, possibly, excessive Iron intake, have been associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. Quercetin has been shown to have anti-cancer properties with respect to colon cancer.
  •  
    ENDOMETRIAL CANCER

  • See MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Endometriosis for detailed information.
  •  
    ESOPHAGEAL CANCER

  • Esophageal cancers are more common in men than in women, and more often in African-Americans than in whites. Tumors in the esophagus usually occur in the middle or lower half of the esophagus. Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest-growing and deadliest forms of cancer in the United States because symptoms usually do not occur before it is in advanced stages when there is little chance of recovery.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • The cause or causes of esophageal cancer are not well understood. Risk factors include the use of tobacco and/or alcohol; age; personal history of Barrett's esophagus (a precancerous condition resulting from the reflux of stomach fluid into the bottom portion of the esophagus over an extended period of time), achalasia (constriction of the lower portion of the esophagus), tylosis (a very rare inherited disease that causes the overgrowth of skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet), or esophageal webs (small portions of tissue that stick out into the esophagus, often making it difficult to swallow); a high-fat diet; consumption of wood-smoked foods; previous ingestion of lye; and frequent heartburn. The risk generally rises with age. Those who smoke or drink heavily (or both) are at greatest risk. People with tylosis have nearly a 100 percent chance of developing esophageal cancer. Screening must begin at an early age for people with tylosis.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • Usually there are no symptoms until the cancer is in the advanced stages. When they develop, symptoms may include progressive dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), often with a feeling of something being stuck in the throat or chest; vomiting and vomiting of blood; bringing up excess mucus; and unintended weight loss.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • See your health care provider without delay if swallowing becomes even the slightest problem. Your health care provider may use a barium x-ray and an endoscopic exam, or request a biopsy. A computerized tomography (CT) scan or a newer procedure called and endoscopic ultrasound (an endoscope with an ultrasound probe) may also be ordered.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

    A diet high in fruits (including Tomatoes) and vegetables may decrease the risk of this form of cancer. Fish, Berries, Mushrooms, and Brussels Sprouts are all good sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, which offer protection. The consumption of salted, pickled, or moldy foods has been associated with an increased risk. Another risk factor may be the consumption of extremely hot or cold foods that cause physical damage to the esophagus.

  • Green Tea contains a mechanism that inhibits esophageal cancer. Vitamins A and Vitamin C, Selenium, and Riboflavin (Vitamin B-1) may help protect against esophageal cancer. Spirulina has been found in several studies to inhibit the growth of oral tumors.
  •  
    LARYNGEAL CANCER

  • The larynx (also known as the voice box) is the part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea, containing the vocal chords. Cancer of the larynx affects more men than women. It usually strikes after the age of 50. Most laryngeal cancers develop from squamous cells, the thin layer of cells that make up the lining of the larynx.

  • This type of laryngeal cancer usually begins as dysplasia and forms over a period of time. In fact, most of the precancerous cells go away on their own without treatment.

  • However, some of them for carcinoma in situ (CIS), the earliest form of cancer. Tumors located on the true vocal chords rarely spread because the connective tissues underneath do not contain lymph nodes. but tumors on other parts of the larynx are apt to spread early. Laryngeal cancer can be treated by radiation therapy, especially if diagnosed early, and by surgery to remove part or all of the larynx. If the larynx is completely removed, you must learn a new method of speech that involves the swallowing of air and bringing it back up again. Some surgical techniques have been developed to reconstruct larynx tissue so that speaking can be returned to almost normal. One method that has worked for many people is the insertion of a prosthetic device.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • Most cases of laryngeal cancer are associated with the prolonged use of tobacco and/or alcohol. Associated risk factors include chronic inhalation of fumes; frequent laryngitis or vocal straining; and an inherited predisposition.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • Possible symptoms of laryngeal cancer include a persistent cough; hoarse throat; swallowing difficulties, sometimes with a pain that radiates to the ear; persistent ear pain; chronic sore throat, sometimes so mild that it is hardly noticed; blood in saliva or sputum; unintended weight loss; and difficulty breathing.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • Persistent symptoms such as those listed above should be evaluated by a health care provider who specializes in the head and neck area, or an otolaryngologist. Most voice changes are not a sign of cancer, but it is better to be safe and see a health care practitioner if you are hoarse for more than 2 weeks. Diagnosis is made by laryngoscopy (visual examination of the larynx by means of a scope) plus biopsy.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • The diet should be rich in fruits, vegetables, and foods containing Vitamin A, the B Vitamins, and retinoids. It is best to avoid alcohol.


  • If you are unable to acquire proper amounts of the above nutrients through the diet alone, you should take supplements. Be sure that your total intake of Vitamin A does not exceed 25,000 IU.
  •  
    LEUKEMIA

  • Leukemia is any of a variety of diseases of the blood-forming tissues (bone marrow, lymph system, or spleen).

  • Leukemia involves the production of abnormal white blood cells that do not function like normal cells, do not mature properly, and do not die off in a normal fashion. Leukemia affects both children and adults, although certain forms are most common in particular age groups. It is somewhat more common in Caucasians than in African-Americans.

  • According to the American Cancer Society, about 30,000 new cases of leukemia were diagnosed in the United states in 2001. There are 4 main types of leukemia:
    • 1. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL): ALL develops from cells in the bone marrow called lymphocytes. It accounts for slightly more than half of all cases of childhood leukemia. The most common type of cancer overall in children, it progresses rapidly.

      2. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML): AML is also known as acute myeloid leukemia. AML develops from either granulocytes or monocytes (types of white blood cells). It affects both children and adults, and accounts for just under half of childhood leukemia cases. AML progresses rapidly.

      3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): CLL develops from lymphocytes. The cells look mature but their function may not be normal. This disease occurs almost exclusively in adults, in whom it is the most common type of leukemia in adults. CLL progresses slowly.

      4. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML): CML is another form of myeloid leukemia. It develops from granulocytes or monocytes. CML affects adults and is about half as common as CLL. It progresses slowly.

  • While there is no know cure, transfusions, chemotherapy and bone marrow transplants are often effective treatments. New treatments include stem cell transplant, umbilical cord blood cell transplant, infusion of cell-specific antibodies, and biological therapy.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • No one knows exactly what causes leukemia, but suspected causal factors include genetics, viruses, and exposure to certain toxic chemicals. Known risk factors include heredity, radiation exposure, chronic viral infections, age, Down syndrome, having a sibling with leukemia, exposure to human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTVL-1), use of commercial hair dyes, alkylating agents, certain cancer therapies, and environmental exposure to benzene (found in unleaded gasoline) or radon.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • Signs and symptoms of leukemia can include paleness; fatigue; shortness of breath when active; weight loss; repeated infections; excessive sweating; fever; easy bruising; slow-healing cuts; bone and joint pain; nosebleeds; swollen lymph nodes, increased susceptibility to infection; and an enlarged liver or spleen.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • Leukemia is usually diagnosed by means of blood tests and possibly bone marrow biopsy.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • Soybean products, which certain genistein and other isoflavones, may offer protection against leukemia. Good soy foods include tempeh, roasted soy nuts, Soy Powder Protein, and miso. The bioflavonoid Quercetin has been found in numerous studies to have anti-leukemia properties. Genistein has shown positive effects in destroying leukemia cells in laboratory tests. Low Selenium levels have been associated with a greater risk.

  • Breast-fed babies have a reduced risk of contracting childhood leukemia than non-breast-fed babies.
  •  
    LUNG CANCER

  • Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. The average ages of diagnosis is 60. There are 2 general types of lung cancer: small cell (or oat cell) lung cancer, which accounts for approximately 25 percent of all lung cancers, and non-small-cell lung cancer, which accounts for approximately 75 percent of lung cancers. small cell lung cancer grows very rapidly and has a tendency to spread early to other parts of the body. this type of lung cancer is commonly found in smokers.

  • There are 3 main types of non-small-cell lung cancer: squamous cell carcinoma (the most common form of lung cancer), adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.

  • About 170,000 new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed each year, and nearly 160,000 people die of the disease. If caught before it has spread to the lymph nodes or other organs, lung cancer has about a 50 percent survival rate. However, most cancers (about 85 percent) are not caught at the early stage because they do not generally produce early symptoms, making the all-around survival rate relatively low - only about 12 percent - although it has been improving thanks to new diagnostics and drugs.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and is thought to be responsible for over 80 percent of cases.

  • Associated risk factors include marijuana use; exposure to secondary smoke; exposure to asbestos, nickel, chromium, radon, or radioactive materials; alcohol consumption; chronic bronchitis; history of tuberculosis; exposure to certain carcinogenic chemicals in the workplace, such as pesticides and herbicides; pollution; radon exposure; having had previous lung cancer; personal history of lung diseases cause by breathing certain materials; tuberculosis; arsenic compounds; lung scarring from certain types of pneumonia; exposure to raw forms of talcum powders (not those found in household powders such as baby and facial powders); and deficiency (or excess) of Vitamin A.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • Lung cancer can cause a persistent cough; sputum with blood; chest pain; shortness of breath; fatigue; hoarseness; unintended weight loss; loss of appetite; recurring bronchitis or pneumonia; fever for an unknown reason; new onset of wheezing; and swelling of neck and face.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • If you have any persistent symptoms, see your health care provider. Although many of these symptoms are often caused by other conditions, an examination is a crucial step in early detection. If your health care provider does suspect lung cancer, he or she may order a series of imaging screenings, a study of a phlegm culture, a biopsy, and/or blood tests. There are also 2 diagnostic imaging tools that may be used in place of a biopsy. The Cillix LIFE-Lung Fluorescence Endoscopy System and Nofetumomab. Another imaging test, called NeoTect, may also aid in diagnosing cancer - possibly eliminating the need to have a biopsy done on a suspicious growth. A new chest-scanning technique called low-dose computed tomography (CT) may be a screening option if you are at high risk for lung cancer. Researchers are looking into the possibility of using routine CAT scans as a screening method for lung cancer, in the hope that this might substantially improve the survival rate for the disease. This type of screening is able to detect tumors smaller than the size of a kernel of corn, rather than the size of an orange.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • A diet high in fruits (including tomatoes) and vegetables is associated with a greatly reduced risk of lung cancer. Shiitake Mushrooms contain lentinan, which may also offer protection. Genistein, an antioxidant found in Soybeans, may have an inhibiting effect on the growth of lung cancer cells. Alpha-Carotene, Beta-Carotene & other Carotenoids are believed by many researchers to aid in reducing the risk of lung cancer, although there is some evidence that beta-carotene may be linked to a higher rate of lung cancer and mortality in smokers, former smokers, and those subjected to exposure to asbestos in their working environments. Vitamin C and E and beta-carotene all work together, and when taken together, the potential adverse side effects are counteracted. Selenium, Lycopene, Lutein, and Glutathione have been associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer. The B Vitamins have also been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer.

  • A resent study conducted at the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain reported that drinking one glass of red wine per day may reduce the risk of lung cancer (particularly in men) by 13 percent.
  •  
    LYMPHOMA

  • A key player in the body's immune system, the lymphatic system is made up of a circuitry of vessels that branch out and spread to all of the body's tissues - much like blood vessels do. Lymph nodes, found in the abdomen, chest, groin, neck, and underarms, are located along these vessels. Other parts of the lymph system include adenoids, bone marrow, the spleen, tonsils, and thymus gland. The intestines, skin, and stomach also contain lymphatic tissue. Lymph is a colorless fluid that contains lymphocytes, which fight infection.

  • Cancer that develops within the lymphatic system is categorized as either Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (all other forms of cancers in the lymph system). In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), the body's ability to fight off infection is significantly decreased because fewer than normal white blood cells are produced. In addition, the cancer can spread through the lymphatic vessels to other parts of the body. NHL can be low-grade (slow-growing), intermediate-grade, or high-grad. Both intermediate-grade and high-grade NHL are fast-growing and can be deadly within 1 to 2 years if left untreated.

  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the 5th most common cancer in the United States, and the number of cases diagnosed has increased by nearly 50 percent in the past 15 years. The actual number of new cases has increased, but the increase is also due in part to better methods of detection. Although this type of cancer can develop at any age, older adults are at highest risk.

  • A Danish study revealed a suspected link between mononucleosis and Hodgkin's disease. Those who contract mononucleosis may have a higher risk of developing Hodgkin's disease, and the increased risk appears to last for 2 decades.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • At least some cases of lymphoma are linked to a viral cause. In other cases, the cause is unknown. Risk factors include heredity; immune system dysfunction; exposure to herbicides, pesticides, or black hair dye; a diet high in read meat; AIDS; immune-depressing therapies; previous organ transplantation; benzene; and HTVL-1.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • Symptoms of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma vary, depending on the area of cancer growth. If cancer is in the abdomen, it can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain or enlargement; in the chest, it can cause shortness of breath and cough; in the brain, headaches, vision changes and seizures; in the bone marrow, anemia; in the thymus, shortness of breath or feeling of suffocation and coughing.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • A biopsy can be done on lymphatic tissue to detect if there is any cancer present, and if so, what type. If any symptoms of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are persistent, you should see your health care provider for proper evaluation.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • The diet should be low in animal protein and fat and high in Fiber. Alcohol should be avoided.
  •  
    ORAL (MOUTH) CANCER

  • Ten thousand Americans each year die from oral cancer. It is twice as common in men as in women, although the incidence is rising in women and falling in men.

  • Tumors in the oral cavity are not always malignant; however, some tumors can be precancerous. Oral leukoplakia is a precancerous condition of the mouth to which smokers and drinkers are particularly prone. People who have had cancer in the oral cavity are at greater risk of developing cancer in nearby areas and should have follow-up exams regularly throughout their lives.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • Smoking and the use of chewing tobacco are the primary causes of oral cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, 90 percent of people with mouth and throat cancers use tobacco, and the risk of developing these cancers increases with the amount smoked or chewed and the duration of the habit. Other risk factors include irritants inside the mouth, such as a broken tooth or ill-fitting or broken dentures; excessive alcohol intake; chronic use of a mouthwash with high alcohol content; poor oral and dental hygiene; ultraviolet light exposure to the lips; vitamin deficiency; Plummer-Vinson syndrome; HPV; and immune system depression.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • While some oral cancers produce early symptoms, others do not until it is advanced. Symptoms may include a chronic sore of the mouth, tongue, or throat that does not heal; loss of feeling in the mouth or tongue; discolored patches in the mouth or throat area; swallowing difficulty or a feeling that something is stuck in the throat; mass in the cheek or neck; swelling or motion difficulty of the jaw; changes in the voice; and unintended weight loss. Cancer in the mouth has been known to disguise itself as another condition - even as a toothache.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • Cancer in the mouth can be found early through recommended regular exams by the dentist or health care provider. If cancer is suspected, your health care provider will refer you to an otolaryngologist (head and neck specialist). The health care provider may perform a complete head and neck exam, which may or many not include a biopsy. If it is likely that cancer is present, a panendoscopy will be done, which includes a complete, thorough exam performed under anesthesia.

  • A mouthwash containing a blue dye that helps dentists to see very small suspicious sores and ulcers is undergoing testing.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • A diet low in fat and high in fruits (including tomatoes) and vegetables, with little or no alcohol consumption, is recommended. Omega-3 Fatty Acids, found in Fish, Berries, Mushrooms, and Brussels Sprouts, offer protection against oral cancer. Fiber containing foods, Soy, and other legumes may also reduce the risk. A study published in the journal Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery suggests that taking Beta-Carotene supplements may reverse oral leukoplakia.

  • Vitamin deficiencies have been associated with oral cancer. Spirulina has been found in several studies to inhibit the growth of oral tumors.
  •  
    OVARIAN CANCER

  • Ovarian cancer is a deadly form of cancer. It kills more women than any other type of cancer of the reproductive system. If diagnosed and treated early, however, the survival rate is quite high. Unfortunately, ovarian cancer is known as a silent disease - it produces no symptoms until it is in its later stages, so the death rate is also quite high. Of the 25,580 expected new cases in 2004, 16,000 women were expected to die. However, if the cancer is found early, treatment is 95 percent successful.

  • Ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer of the female reproductive system. It affects approximately 1 in 70 American women at some point in their lives. The risk of developing ovarian cancer heightens past the age of 40 and menopause further increases the risk.

  • See MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Ovarian Cancer, as well as MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Ovarian Cysts and MoonDragon's Womens' Health Disorders: Polycystic Ovary for more information about ovary disease.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • The cause or causes of ovarian cancer are not known. Risk factors include not having gone through pregnancy and childbirth; exposure to asbestos or radiation; high dietary fat intake; the use of talcum powder in the genital area; personal history of breast, uterine, colon, or nonpolyposis colon cancers; family history of breast or ovarian cancer; HPV infection; early onset and/or late cessation of menstruation; obesity; and a diet high in saturated animal fat and low in fiber. Taking birth control pills has been known to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer by 50 to 60 percent.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  • Often there are no obvious symptoms until the cancer is in its later stages of development. These symptoms may include enlargement of the abdomen, diarrhea or constipation, frequent urination, or in rare cases, vaginal bleeding.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • Any enlargement of the abdomen or persistent digestive disturbances that cannot be explained by any other condition should prompt you to see your health care provider or gynecologist for an exam. Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer may want to be tested for genes with which it has been associated. Routine pelvic exams can detect a hardened or enlarged ovary or an ovarian growth, while Pap smears are not very useful in detecting this. A tumor may also show up on a transvaginal ultrasound. A biopsy is needed to confirm any suspicions. Researchers are studying the possibility of developing a blood test to detect ovarian and other gynecological cancers. Levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a substance found in the blood, seem to rise consistently in women who have ovarian cancer. This may provide a basis for a blood test.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • A diet that is high in Fiber and low in saturated animal fats is a good defense against ovarian cancer. A diet high in Folate (Folic Acid) intake may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.

  • Quercetin has been found to have properties that protect against ovarian cancer. Low levels of Selenium have been associated with a greater risk of ovarian cancer.

  • A study in Queensland, Australia, reported that women who drink more than one glass of red wine a day decrease their risk of developing ovarian cancer 7 times over women who do not drink red wine.
  •  
    PROSTATE CANCER

  • See MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Prostate Cancer for detailed information.
  •  
    SKIN CANCER

  • See MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Skin Cancer for detailed information.
  •  
    STOMACH CANCER

  • Stomach cancer affects approximately 8 in 100,000 Americans. It is nearly twice as common in men as in women, and is more common among lower-income people. The risk of stomach cancer increases past the age of 40. Stomach cancer is more common in foreign countries such as Japan, Chile, and Austria, while stomach cancer in the United States is on the decline, probably due to healthier lifestyles, and to an increased use of refrigeration.

  • The stomach is divided into 5 portions, and cancer can develop in any of them. Depending on the location where the cancer develops, stomach cancer can produce different symptoms and different outcomes. Most researchers agree that stomach cancer develops gradually and is often preceded by the development of precancerous cells. Stomach cancer has the ability to spread in several ways. It can spread through the lymphatic system, or by extending into the esophagus or small intestine.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • Some cases are probably a result of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. In other cases, the cause is unknown. Risk factors for stomach cancer include pernicious anemia; lack of hydrochloric acid and dietary fiber; high-fat diet; diet high in smoked, salted, or pickled foods; foods high in starch and low in fiber; tobacco and/or alcohol use; previous stomach surgery; chronic gastritis; stomach polyps; heredity; having type A blood; and a personal history of pernicious anemia or atrophic gastritis (a condition resulting in a reduction of gastric acid secretions).
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • There are often no symptoms in the early stages. When they develop, symptoms can include indigestion, pain, and bloating after eating; pain in the stomach that cannot be relieved by antacids; vomiting after eating or vomiting blood; black or tarry stools; anemia; fatigue; and unintended weight loss.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • If you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above, it is important to see your health care provider (especially if you are in a high risk category), even though many of the symptoms can be caused by other less threatening conditions. If your health care provider suspects stomach cancer, he or she may run several tests, including laboratory blood and fecal occult blood tests, and endoscopy, or a barium upper GI radiograph. A biopsy is needed for formal diagnosis. An endoscopic ultrasound is a newer method that can be used to see how far along the cancer is.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • A diet high in fruits (including tomatoes), vegetables, rice, pasta, and beans, with limited amounts of meat products, is a good defense. Broccoli, onions, garlic, and pineapple are high in sulfur compounds, which offer protection against stomach cancer. Also, you should keep your consumption of smoked, barbecued, pickled, or salt-cured foods to a minimum, and avoid alcohol and tobacco products.


  • Antioxidants are a strong defense against free radicals that can damage cells and, possibly, make them turn cancerous. Vitamin C and Vitamin E, Alpha-Carotene, Beta-Carotene, Selenium, and Lycopene are good sources of protection. Studies have shown that boron can reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
  •  
    TESTICULAR CANCER

  • Testicular cancer generally strikes men of younger ages - usually between the ages of 20 and 35 - and the chance of developing testicular cancer declines with age. It is more likely to occur in Caucasians that in African-American men. The incidence of testicular cancer has been rising in recent years.


  • Tumors in the testicle tend to grow very rapidly. They can double in size in only 20 to 30 days. They can also spread quickly through the lymph nodes. For this reason, testicular cancer often spreads before diagnosis. The cure rate for testicular cancer if very high, over 95 percent, if it is detected early. New treatment methods can destroy even testicular cancers that have spread.
  • CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • The cause of testicular cancer is not known. It is known that cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) substantially increases the risk, even if the condition is corrected by surgery. Other risk factors include inguinal hernia during childhood and a personal history of mumps orchitis.
  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • Symptoms of testicular cancer include a lump or lumps in the testicle; enlargement of a testicle; thickening of the scrotum; sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum; pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum; mild ache in the lower abdomen, back, or groin; blood in the semen; enlargement or tenderness of the breasts.
  • DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS

  • A monthly self-exam is the best way to detect testicular cancer early, especially for boys and men between the ages of 15 and 40. Yearly examinations by a health care provider are suggested as well. If cancer is suspected after examination of a mass, your health care provider will request a testicular ultrasound. Ultimately, a biopsy is needed for complete diagnosis.

  • See MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Cancer Self Tests for more information about performing a monthly testicular cancer self-test.
  • DIETARY & NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

  • A low-fat diet that includes generous helpings of fruits, vegetables, and grains is recommended. Tomatoes and watermelon are good sources of lycopene, which may protect against testicular cancer. Avoid high-fat foods and alcohol.


  • Vitamin E and other Antioxidants may help reduce the risk. Some studies have suggested that Vitamin A supplements may raise the risk.
  •  
    UTERINE CANCER

  • See MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Uterine Cancer for detailed information.
  •  
    VAGINAL CANCER

  • See MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Vaginal Cancer for detailed information.
  •  





    PROJECTED U.S. CANCER RATES BY STATE

    HIGHEST TO LOWEST CANCER INCIDENCE

    Information regarding the projected incidence (cases per 1,000 individuals) of new cases of cancer of all types by state was developed from data provided by the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The states below are listed from highest to lowest projected incidence of cancer.


    1. Florida
    2. West Virginia
    3. Pennsylvania
    4. Arkansas
    5. Maine
    6. Kentucky
    7. District of Columbia
    8. Delaware
    9. Rhode Island
    10. New Jersey
    11. Missouri
    12. Oregon
    13. Tennessee

    14. Massachusetts
    15. Nevada
    16. North Dakota
    17. Ohio
    18. Alabama
    19. Iowa
    20. Mississippi
    21. Montana
    22. Oklahoma
    23. Tennessee
    24. Wisconsin
    25. Kansas
    26. Indiana

    27. Illinois
    28. South Carolina
    29. Arizona
    30. Maryland
    31. Louisiana
    32. Michigan
    33. Connecticut
    34. New York
    35. South Dakota
    36. Nebraska
    37. Vermont
    38. Washington
    39. Virginia

    40. New Hampshire
    41. Minnesota
    42. Texas
    43. Georgia
    44. Idaho
    45. Wyoming
    46. Colorado
    47. California
    48. New Mexico
    49. Hawaii
    50. Utah
    51. Alaska



    CANCER LINKS

    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Cancer - Alternative & Complementary Therapies
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Cancer Nutrition
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Cancer Self Tests
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Cancer Warning Signs
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Prostate Cancer
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Skin Cancer
    MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Breast Cancer
    MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Cervical Cancer
    MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Cervical Dysplasia
    MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Cervical Cancer
    MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Ovarian Cancer
    MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Uterine Cancer
    MoonDragon's Womens Health Disorders: Vaginal Cancer
    MoonDragon's Health Therapy & Medical Organizations
    MoonDragon's Health Therapy: Pain Control
    Suppressed Cancer Therapies (Alphabetical Listing)






    MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |






    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




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