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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness

(Pressure Ulcers, Dermal Ulcers, Pressure Sores)

For "Informational Use Only".
For more detailed information, contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.

  • Bedsore Description
  • Bedsore Frequent Signs & Symptoms
  • Bedsore Causes
  • Bedsore Prevention
  • Bedsore Development - Staging Assessment
  • Bedsore Treatment Recommendations
  • Herbal Supplement Recommendations
  • Patient Care & Bedsore Prevention Products

  • bedsores



    Bedsores, also known as pressure sores, pressure ulcers, or dermal ulcers, are deep ulcers that form when pressure is exerted over bony areas of the body, restricting circulation and leading to the death of cells in the overlying tissue. When pressure cuts off blood flow, the skin area starved for oxygen first becomes red and inflamed, then sore. Even when the blood flow is only partially interrupted, friction and other kinds of damage to the outer skin layer can cause ulcers. Ill-fitting clothing, wrinkled bedding, or shoes rubbing against the skin may contribute to skin injury.

    Bedsores are considered to be a sign of patient abuse and neglect and should be reported to the proper authorities.



  • In most people, bedsores cause some pain and itching; in people whose senses are dulled, even severe, deep sores may be painless.

  • Bedsores are categorized by stage.
    • Stage 1: In stage 1, a sore hasn't actually formed; the unbroken skin is simply red.
    • Stage 2: In stage 2, the skin is red and swollen, often with blisters and the topmost skin layers begin to die.
    • Stage 3: At stage 3, the sore has broken through the skin, exposing deeper levels of skin.
    • Stage 4: By stage 4, the sore extends deeply through the skin and fat and into the muscle.
    • Stage 5: In stage 5, the muscle itself is destroyed.
    • Stage 6: In stage 6, the deepest stage of a bedsore, the bone is exposed, damaged, and sometimes infected.

  • See more about stages 1 through 4 below.



    Skin has a rich blood supply that delivers oxygen to all its layers. If that blood supply is cut off for more than 2 or 3 hours, the skin will die, beginning at its outer layer (the epidermis). A common cause of reduced blood flow to the skin is pressure. Normal movement shifts pressure, so that the blood supply is not stopped for any prolonged period. A layer of fat under the skin, especially over the bony projections, helps pad the skin and keeps the blood vessels from being squeezed shut.

    As their name implies, they tend to occur during periods of prolonged bed rest, although wheelchair users also may develop bedsores. People who suffer from bedsores are usually deficient in many nutrients, especially Zinc and Vitamins A, Vitamin E, Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin), and Vitamin C, and they often have a high bodily pH.

    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Acidosis
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Alkalosis

    Bedsores can occur in people of any age. People who cannot move are most at risk for developing bedsores. This group includes people who are paralyzed, very weak, or restrained. Also at risk are people unable to sense discomfort or pain, signals that normally motivate people to move. Bedsores are particularly common in people who have these conditions:

  • Elderly.: Aged skin is more likely to deteriorate then a young person's skin. As we age so does the elasticity in our skin. It is similar to an elastic band in an old undergarment losing its elasticity over time. The repeated stretching and washing take a toll on an old undergarment. So does our skin. We all need to pay closer attention to our eating habits. We need to keep well-nourished. We need to make sure that we do not compromise our immune, circulatory, and respiratory systems. And we need to keep properly hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids every day and remain free from diseases.

  • Very Thin (Emaciated). People who are too thin (emaciated), often combined with the lack of oxygen and important nutrients may interfere with a wound's ability to heal. Malnourished people do not have the protective fat layer along with lacking essential nutrients.

  • Overweight (Obesity). Body type will affect the ability for the wound to repair itself and can be greatly hindered because fatty tissue has a poor blood supply.

  • Dead Tissue Caused By Injury or Disease. There are two types of dead tissue found in a wound. The first type is called slough. This can best be described as moist, loose, stringy dead cells, and appears yellow in color. The second type is called eschar and appears as thick, dry leathery-like tissue, and black in color. Dead tissue interferes with the repair process of wounds and must be removed by a qualified health care provider before healing can take place.

  • slough
    Slough Tissue
    Eschar Tissue

  • Unable To Move. People at high risk for the development of pressure ulcers are those people unable to move freely. Spinal cord injury patients, stroke victims, and severe or long-lasting injuries may present certain challenges. Paralyzed, very weak or restrained individuals are at risk for developing bedsores.

  • Incontinent. Incontinence is the inability for one to control the bladder or bowel. This can interfere with the wound's ability to heal. Incontinence needs to be managed appropriately. If not, this could impair the wound healing process. Ask your health care provider about receiving incontinence care as well as special underclothing, bed protection, and skin care products available to help with this situation.

  • Trauma & Swelling. Trauma and swelling interferes with the transportation of oxygen and nutrition from our cells to the wound and thus prolongs the healing process. Healing is slowed, or perhaps even stopped, if there is repeated trauma or deprivation of blood supply from swelling.

  • Infection. If a wound is infected, we must first find out the cause of the infection. A wound infection is present if we can see redness around the wound or the skin around the wound is warm to the touch, if there is thick yellow discharge, a foul odor, a hardening of the skin, and/or a fever. Your health care provider may take a culture of your wound, and perhaps a blood culture, to better determine what is happening.

  • Poorly Nourished. Regardless of our age, nutrition plays a vital role in our healing process. Visual appearance of the patient alone does not determine whether we are maintaining an appropriate diet. It is important to receive the appropriate caloric intake. Laboratory values such as protein (essential for the repair of tissue), serum albumin (blood protein level), and hematocrit (the percentage of blood occupied by cells) are indicators that must be assessed and monitored regularly. Anemia (a deficiency in the oxygen carrying component of the blood) can contribute to the development of bedsores.

  • Suppressed Immune System. Having a suppressed immune system, either by a disease or medication, can delay the healing process.

  • Radiation Therapy. Ulcerations or changes in the skin itself can occur after radiation treatment.

  • Chronic Diseases. Many chronic diseases impact the wound healing process. Diabetes is one example. In the insulin-dependent diabetic population, chronic wounds generally heal very slowly, or perhaps not at all. Insufficient amounts of insulin can delay granulation tissue formation (the red beefy healthy tissue in the healing wound). In this case, the caregiver and the provider need to monitor serum glucose levels of the diabetic patient. You will also want to monitor the signs and symptoms of infection, as well.

  • Prolonged Contact With Moisture. Prolonged exposure to moisture - often perspiration, urine, or feces - can damage the skin surface, making bedsores more likely.

  • Continuous Exposure To Dry Environment. Wounds have been found to heal 3 to 5 times faster, and less painful, in a moist (but not wet) environment as opposed to a dry environment. When a wound is continuously exposed to a dry environment (such as air), the cells are not given the ability to move or reorganize, which is part of the healing process. And if nerve endings are exposed in the wound, pain will be experienced due to the irritation.

  • Circulation-Impaired. Vascular insufficiencies resulting in decreased blood supply to the lower legs can be one cause leading to wounds and/or ulcers developing on our legs and feet. These would include arterial ischemic ulcers, diabetic ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous stasis ulcers. It is important to have these identified for proper treatment.

  • Subjected To Shearing. Shearing occurs when the skin moves in one direction while the structures under the skin, such as the bones, remain fixed or move in the opposite direction. This can happen when a person is dragged rather than lifted up in bed, when positions are changed, or when a person slides down in bed or in a wheelchair. Blood vessels become twisted and stretched, causing the tissues being served to lose essential oxygen and nutrients, leading to breakdown. In addition, shearing may cause actual tears in fragile skin. These skin tears are painful, a portal of entry for infectious pathogens, and commonly lead to further breakdown.

  • shearing from sliding down in bed
    When a person slides down in bed, or in a wheelchair, shearing occurs with potential skin damage.


  • Debilitation.
  • Edema (An accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces).
  • Confining To Bed or Wheelchairs.
  • Disorientation (Mental Impairment).
  • Dehydration.

  • common sites for bedsores


    Bedsores (pressure ulcers) are caused by prolonged pressure on an area of the body that interferes with circulation. The tissue first becomes reddened. As the cells die (undergo necrosis) from lack of nourishment, the skin breaks down and an ulcer forms. The resulting pressure ulcers become large and deep. As their name implies, they tend to occur during periods of prolonged bed rest. However, wheelchair users also may develop bedsores.

    Pressure ulcers occur most frequently over areas where bones come close to the surface. The most common sites are the:
    • Elbows.
    • Heels.
    • Shoulders, shoulder blades.
    • Sacrum.
    • Hips.
    • Ankles.
    • Ears.
    • Knees (inner and outer parts).
    • Buttocks.
    People tend to develop pressure ulcers where body parts rub and cause friction. Common sites are:
    • Between the folds of the buttocks.
    • Legs.
    • Under the breasts.
    • Abdominal folds.
    • Ankles.
    • Knees.

    rubbing of nasal catheters, nasogastric tubes, or urinary catheters can cause breakdown of skin
    The rubbing of nasal catheters, nasogastric tubes, or urinary catheters, other tubing and equipment used in the care of an ill person can cause breakdown of skin over a long period of time, resulting in pressure sores.



    Prevention is the top priority, and deep bedsores can almost always be prevented with intensive nursing care. Because bedsores are far easier to prevent than to cure, everyone participating in a person's care (medical attendants and family members in addition to the nursing staff) has a responsibility to prevent skin breakdown.

    Pressure sores can occur, for example, when you sit or lie in one position too long. Anyone who must stay in a bed, chair, or wheelchair because of illness or injury, or who cannot change position to relieve this pressure without help is at high risk. For this reasone use of restraints on a patient or nursing home resident increases the risk of pressure ulcers.


    Simply changing positions every few hours while lying in bed, or every 15 minutes while seated, significantly reduces the risk. Providing an overhead trapeze can help patients be more mobile. A 2-hour time frame is a generally accepted maximum interval that the tissue can tolerate pressure without damaged. A patient who cannot change position without assistance should be turned and repositioned at least every two hours, more frequently if needed, with the use of pillows as support.


    Pressure-relieving and pressure-reducing devices have been developed for preventing pressure injury. None of these insures complete protection. Specialized mattresses can facilitate pressure reduction and appear to be effective in reducing the development of pressure ulcers when compared with standard mattresses. Use of medical sheepskins and egg crates is controversial. Although offering more protection than standard mattresses, they relieve surface pressure only and might give a false sense of security. Air-fluidized beds have been shown to more effectively reduce the development of pressure ulcers in patients. Low-air-loss and air-fluidized beds have been shown to consistently relieve pressure on bony prominences. Additional protection may still be needed to relieve heel pressure. If the patient cannot move, heels must be raised off the bed. Pillows should be placed under the legs from mid-calf to ankle, not behind the knee. Studies indicate that turning more frequently than 2 hours is needed if a standard mattress is used. If the patient is in a chair, the position should be changed every hour. Do not use donut-shape cushions. They can increase the risk of getting a pressure ulcer by cutting off blood flow and causing tissue to swell.


    Shearing is also a kind of pressure injury. It happens when the skin moves one way and the bone underneath it moves another way. Shearing and friction also cause rubbing and superficial irritation of the skin surface. This increases the skin's vulnerability to damage from pressure. Shear strains are higher where tissue between skin and bone is thin. Shear strain stretches and tears microstructures such as cell walls and capillaries. Some important sources of shearing and friction are:
    • Dragging or sliding a patient across the bed sheets.
    • Allowing the patient's unprotected elbows or heels to rub against the bed surface.
    • Rubbing against something such as a bed sheet, cast, brace.
    • Raising the head of the bed more than 30 degrees, which increases shearing forces over the lower back and tailbone. Friction between the skin and a stationary surface holds the soft tissue in place while gravity pulls the axial skeleton down. Frictional forces and their effects are present whenever there is either sliding or a tendency to slide.

    To reduce shear forces and friction avoid dragging the patient across the bed sheets. Instead, either lift the patient or encourage the patient to use a trapeze to briefly raise his or her body. Keep the bed free from crumbs and other small particles that can rub and irritate the skin. Discourage the bed or chair bound patient from sitting with head elevated more than 30 degrees except for short periods of time (unless instructed by a health care provider). Bony prominences should not be massaged. Use protection and padding as needed to prevent tissue abrasion. Sheepskin boots and elbow pads can be used to reduce friction on heels and elbows. Cleanse gently when washing the patient. Avoid rubbing or scrubbing the skin.


    Without proper nutrition and hydration, the patient is at greater risk of developing pressure ulcers and wound healing will be more difficult. Encourage the patient to eat well and monitor his or her nutritional status. Protein intake is particularly important. Consult with an expert as needed to insure maximum nutritional support. Research indicates that good nutrition is a crucial factor in a patientís recovery.


    Look for ways to improve the patientís ability to move. Exercise increases blood flow and speeds healing. In many cases, even bedridden patients can perform stretches and isometric exercises. Encourage the patient to use a trapeze to briefly raise his or her body. The use of restraints on a patient in a nursing home facility increases the risk of developing bedsores. Avoid excessive bed rest and review medications, especially drugs increasing somnolence.


    Education of the patientís family and caregivers is a key function of prevention and care.


    Established bedsores are painful and life threatening. They lengthen the time spent in hospitals or nursing homes and increase the cost of care. Bedsores, unfortunately, are found more commonly in long-term care facilities (nursing homes and rehab hospitals) than in short-term care institutions or home care. One of the reasons for this is that the patient has less personal care and attention in long-term facilities, who are often short-staffed and can be neglectful of bedridden individuals, letting them lay in their beds without proper turning and safety measures that can help prevent bedsores. Careful daily inspection of a bedridden person's skin can detect early redness. Any sign of redness is a signal that immediate action is needed to prevent skin breakdown.

    In choosing a facility for a family member, pay special attention to the care of the residents in the facility. If your family member is already in a facility, check them for signs of bedsores or skin breakdown. Report it immediately to the head of the medical or nursing staff and follow up on the report to make sure they are correcting the problem. If not, it would be better to find another facility.

    When a person is admitted to a care facility, the nurse will assess the patient's current status and potential for skin breakdown. This assessment gives a baseline against which all future assessment may be measured. The assessment may be described on the patient's chart in words, pictures, diagrams, or as a score. If a nursing diagnosis of actual or "potential impairment of skin integrity" is made, every staff member must make extra efforts to prevent skin breakdown, limit any breakdown that has already occurred, and promote the healing process.


    Identify any patient at risk to develop pressure sores by assessing the seven clinical condition parameters and assigning a score. Any patient with intact skin, but scoring 8 or greater should having nursing diagnosis "Potential Impairment of Skin Integrity" identified.

    Pressure Sore Risk Assessment

    General Physical Condition (Health Problem)
      Good (minor)
      Fair (Major But Stable)
      Poor (Chronic/Serious Not Stable)
    Level of Consciousness (To Commands)
      Alert (Responds Readily)
      Lethargic (Slow to Respond)
      Semi Comatose (Responds Only To Verbal or Painful Stimuli)
      Comatose (No Response To Stimuli)
      Ambulant Without Assistance
      Ambulant With Assistance
    Mobility (Extremities)
      Full Active Range
      Limited Movement With Assistance
      Moves Only With Assistance
    Incontinence (Bowel and/or Bladder)
      Occasional (Less than/equal to 2 per 24 hours)
      Usually (Greater than 2 per 24 hours)
      No Control
    Nutrition (For Age & Size)
      Good (Eats/Drinks Adequately 3/4 Meal)
      Fair (Eats/Drinks Inadequately - At Least 1/2 meal)
      Poor (Unable/Refuses To Eat/Drink - Less Than 1/2)
    Skin/Tissue Status
      Good (Well Nourished/Skin Intact)
      Fair (Poorly Nourished/Skin Intact)
      Poor (Skin Not Intact)




    Tissue breakdown occurs in four stages. Nursing intervention at each stage can limit the process and prevent further damage. Remember to continue all preventive measures throughout care.

    Stage 1

    First indication of tissue damage (Stage 1) is redness and heat over a pressure point.


    In Stage 1 (Stage I), the skin develops a redness or blue-gray discoloration over the pressure area. In dark-skinned people, the area may appear drier. If after peripheral massage and relief of pressure, the blush has not subsided, it is probably the beginning of a pressure ulcer (bedsore). Usually this stage of ulceration is reversible if the pressure is reduced or removed.

    Stage 2

    Stage 2 (Stage II) is marked by destruction of the epidermis and partial destruction of the dermis.


    In Stage 2 (Stage II), the skin is reddened and there are abrasions, blisters, or a shallow crater at the site. The area around the breakdown site may also be reddened. The skin may or may not be broken. The epidermis alone or both the epidermis and the dermis may be involved. If this stage of involvement is neglected, further and deeper damage occurs.

    Stage 3

    Stage 3 (Stage III) all layers of skin have been destroyed. A deep crater has formed.


    In Stage 3 (Stage III), all the layers of the skin are destroyed and a deep crater forms. The nurse documents the size of the lesion using a commercial scale.

    Stage 4<

    Stage 4 (Stage IV), tissue destruction can involve muscle, bone, and other vital structures.


    In Stage 4 (Stage IV), the ulcer extends through the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and may involve bone, muscle, and other structures. At this stage, the patient will experience fluid loss and pain and is at great risk for infection.



    Nursing care actions when skin breakdown occurs include:
    • Performing the actions listed in the guidelines to prevent further breakdown.
    • Following the care plan exactly.
    • Reporting indications of infection, such as fever,odor, drainage, bleeding, and changes in size.
    • Keeping the area around the breakdown clean and dry.
    • Assisting with baths to keep the area clean.
    • The area may be covered with a dry, sterile dressing (DSD).
      • Holding a DSD without causing additional injury is not easy. The skin of some individuals may be sensitive to regular tape. In this case, silk tape, paper tape, cellophane tape, or other hypoallergenic tape may be used. To prevent injury when removing the tape for a dressing change, a saline solution is applied to loosen the tape.

    • The patient may be placed on alternating-pressure mattresses or pressure-reducing mattresses or beds.
    • In some facilities, open lesions are packed loosely with gauze soaked in a wound gel. The gel keeps the lesions moist, breaks down dead cells, and promotes healing.
    • Teflon-coated or petroleum jelly-impregnated gauze has the advantage of not sticking to the healing wound.
    • The area may be protected and kept moist by using special dressings.
      • These dressings have a clear plastic covering that permits air to reach the tissues, but also keeps them moist to promote healing. The dressing must extend beyond the wound edge. It is held in place with a frame of either paper or silk tape. The dressing must be changed every 3 to 5 days unless there is leakage or according to facility policy.

    • The wounds may be cleaned with saline solution and debrided (dead tissue removed) using instruments and proteolytic enzymes (substances that react with skin proteins) by a qualified health care provider. Chemical agents can be used instead, but they are generally less thorough than a scalpel.
    • Deep bedsores are difficult to treat. Sometimes they require transplanting healthy skin to the damaged area.
      • Unfortunately, this type of surgery is not always possible, especially for frail older people who are malnourished. Often when infections develop deep within a sore, antibiotics are given. When bones beneath a sore become infected, the bone infection (osteomyelitis) is extremely difficult to cure and may spread through the bloodstream, requiring many weeks of treatment with an antibiotic.

    • For deeper sores, special dressings that contain a gelatin-like material can help new skin grow.
      • If the sore appears infected or oozes, rinsing, washing gently with soap, or using disinfectants such as povidone-iodine can remove the dead and infected material. However, cleansing too harshly slows healing.

    • Antiseptic sprays, antibiotic ointments, and dressings are used to control infection.
    • Surgery may be needed to close the ulcerated area in severe cases.

    Guidelines for Preventing Pressure Ulcers (Bedsores) - Herbal, Nutritional, & Holistic Recommendations

    Patients (and their family members) should be encouraged to participate to whatever extent is possible in their own care. Attentive nursing care is essential in preventing skin breakdown. Remember that it is far easier to prevent pressure ulcers than to heal them.

    herbal liniments and oils for massage


    Ensuring adequate circulation to tissues is a major factor in preventing skin breakdown. This can be accomplished by:
    • Positioning the patient properly.
    • Using mechanical aids.
    • Giving back rubs.
    • Performing active or passive range-of-motion exercises.


    Five basic in-bed positions are used to relieve pressure as the patient's condition permits. Each position must be supported for comfort. The care provider must remember that all patients are able to assume the full range of positions, because of disabilities such as arthritis, contractures, and breathing limitations. Patients who sit in geri-chairs or wheelchairs for long period of time must also change position to relieve pressure.

    Patients with special problems require extra care when they are positioned in bed. For example:
    • Be sure the patient can breathe properly.
    • Remember that a fractured hip is never rotated over the unaffected leg.
    • If the patient had a stroke, elevate the weak arm to reduce edema.
    • Always maintain proper body alignment.
    • The patient with a recent stroke is turned on the unaffected side.

    The five basic positions patients assume in bed are:
    • Supine position.
    • Semisupine position.
    • Lateral position.
    • Semiprone position.
    • Fowler's position.

    MoonDragon's Health Information: Patient Positions (Graphic Descriptions)


    Mechanical aids are used to reduce pressure. Examples are:
    • Sheepskin Pads (or Artificial Sheepskin). These absorb moisture and reduce friction when placed under the patient.

    • elbow protector

      Elbow protector.

    • Foam Pads & Pillows. These are used to bridge areas to reduce pressure. Watch the patient for signs of disorientation that might be caused by the feeling of weightlessness. Adequate fluid intake to prevent urinary stasis must be provided and conscientious range-of-motion exercises must be carried out.

    • heel protector

      Heel protector.

    • Protectors. These are for areas such as heels and elbows. They are meant to protect areas that are subject to friction as the patient moves in bed.

    • Bed Cradles. Cradles can lift the weight of bedding that must be carefully positioned and may be padded because injury can occur if the resident strikes them.

    • sheepskin pads

      Sheepskin Pads.

    • Alternating-Pressure Mattresses (Air Mattresses). This type of mattress is used in some facilities. Air pressure is reduced in a different area of the mattress on an alternating basis. The air pressure alteration reduces pressure against the body so that no skin area is continuously subjected to pressure.

    • alternating air pressure mattress

      Alternating air pressure mattresses overlay. Alternating air pressure in the mattress cells changes the pressure points against the patient's skin and gently massages the skin.

    • Flotation Mattresses. This is a water bed with controlled temperature. The weight of the resident's body displaces water so that pressure is consistently equalized against the skin. Sheets should not be tucked tightly over a flotation mattress because this will restrict its function.

    • Pillows. Pillows are used in a technique called bridging. In bridging, body parts are supported by pillows so that spaces are left to relieve pressure on specific areas.

    • mattress filled with water

      Mattress filled with water helps to minimize pressure points on the body.

    • Gel-Filled Mattresses. The gel in this type of mattress has a consistency similar to body fat. It allows a more equal distribution of body weight because it conforms to the body contours.

    • Special Equipment. Specialized beds or overlays are available for residents who need continuous pressure relief. One type is the "Clinitron" bed. It is filled with a sand-like material. Warm, dry air circulates through the material to maintain an even temperature and support the body evenly.


    HiTemp UR Medical Sheepskins - A Public Service Website for Seniors & Their Families
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Bedsores Guidelines - Nutrition, Herbal, & Holistic Recommendations
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Leg Ulcers
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Diabetes
    MoonDragon's Health Therapy: Pain Control

    nutritional supplements



    Herbal supplements and skin care products suggested for bedsores, also known as decubitus ulcers or pressure sores, are painful sores caused by constant deficiency of blood to tissues over a bony projection that has been subjected to prolonged pressure against an object like a bed, cast, or splint.

  • Multivitamin and Multimineral supplements are necessary for individuals prone to bedsores. Malnutrition is a major contributor to skin wound formation and health. Nutrient uptake may be limited in compromised individuals so it is important to use one that is easily absorbed by the intestinal tract. A whole food supplement is often a recommendations, such as Alive Whole Food Multinutrient, which is better absorbed into the blood stream because its tablets disintegrate up to 5 times faster than other leading brands. A liquid multinutrient is also more easily abosrbed.

  • Aloe Vera juice can be taken internally as a dietary supplement used to re-nature the cells, tissues, glands and organs of all systems of the body to function as originally designed. The gel is used on the skin to aid in healing, keeping skin looking clean, clear, smooth, toned, hydrated and glowing with health. Can also reduce the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles and sun damage.

  • Antibiotic and Immune Support products can be used for supporting the immune system. Skin Care products are used for the treatment of skin-related problems. Use a natural antibiotic formula product to support the immune system.

  • Black Salve and Black OIntments are formulas made with herbs used to dry out and draw external wounds. Excellent herbal wound care products.
  • \
  • Colloidal Silver solutions and salves are natural antibiotics that can be used internally and externally. Silver is a powerful, natural, prophylactic / antibiotic, used for thousands of years. Ancient Greeks lined their eating and drinking vessels with silver, as did many other cultures throughout the world. The presence of Colloidal Silver near a virus, fungus, bacterium or any other single celled pathogen disables its oxygen metabolism enzyme, its chemical lung, so to say. Within a few minutes, the pathogen suffocates and dies, and is cleared out of the body by the immune, lymphatic and elimination systems. Unlike pharmaceutical antibiotics which destroy beneficial enzymes, Colloidal Silver leaves these tissue-cell enzymes intact, as they are radically different from the enzymes of primitive single-celled life. Thus Colloidal Silver is absolutely safe for humans, reptiles, plants and all multi-celled living matter.Since Colloidal Silver is eliminated by the kidneys, lymph system and bowel after three weeks, a regular daily intake is recommended as a protection against dangerous pathogens. In cases of minor burns, an accumulation of Colloidal Silver can hasten healing, reducing scar tissue and infection and topically it will remove pain and speed healing. The lives of millions of people susceptible to chronic low-grade infections can be enhanced by this powerful preventative health measure. Taken orally, the silver solution is absorbed from the mouth into the bloodstream, then transported quickly to the body cells. Swishing the solution under the tongue briefly before swallowing ensures fast absorption. In three to four days the silver will have accumulated in the tissues sufficiently for benefits to begin. Colloidal Silver supplements with 99.99% pure colloidal silver nanoparticles with the highest particle surface area ever measured for maximum immune support.

  • Comfrey leaf contains allantoin, which promotes the growth of connective tissue, bone, cartilage, and is easily absorbed through the skin. Can be used as a poultice for wound care is is one of the most well-known healing plants, especially for its ability to heal tissue and bone. A Myrrh and Comfrey poultice can be beneficial in treating bedsores, chicken pox, cuts, and skin eruptions. Used for its disinfectant properties.

  • Honey has natural antibiotic and antiseptic qualities. Manuka Honey contains a high level of antibacterial activity not found in other honeys. Can be used externally to treat skin problems, and taken internally for digestive health and to assist digestive process.

  • Essential Fatty Acids are needed for healthy skin, joints, and cardiovascular function. An omega 3-6-9 oil blend formula is recommended.

  • Pascalite Bentonite Healing Clay is used in soap and toothpaste, applied as a poultice to insect bites, sunburns, infections, cold sores, canker sores and acne, and as a suppository for hemorrhoids. Users found it a potent skin cleanser and conditioner, drank it for heartburn and ulcers.

  • Sea Buckthorn oil is a rare source of vitamin E, Sea Buckthorn Oil also provides other vitamins including Vitamins A, C, D, K, etc, carotenoids, flavonoids, phytosterols, amino acids, serotonin and 28 trace elements: zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, selenium, iodine, etc.

  • Tea Tree oil is a natural antiseptic. Used as an ointment it can be combined with the absorption powders Eucalyptus oil and Lavender oil to provide a highly effective herbal skin treatment for wound care.

  • Vitamin C with Bioflavonoids provide antioxidant protection for many of the body's important enzyme systems and skin health.

  • Witch Hazel has astringent properties useful in skin cleansing and care. Useful for hemorroidal complaints, and can be used exteranlly as a rinse or gargle for sore throats, Internally, it is used for treating diarrhea and hemorrage.

  • plantain poultice - compress for treating wounds

  • Plantain is topically used for minor cuts, bruises, and stings, The leaves are used externally to treat wounds, burns, dermatitis and insect bites. For millennia, a poultice of the Plantain leaves have been applied to wounds, stings, and sores in order to promote and facilitate healing and prevent infection. The active chemical constituents are aucubin (an anti-microbial agent), allantoin (which stimulates cellular growth and tissue regeneration), and a large amount of soothing mucilage (which reduces pain and discomfort), as well as flavonoids, caffeic acid derivatives, and alcohols in the wax on the leaf surface. The root of plantain was traditionally used to treat wounds, as well as to treat fever and respiratory infections.

  • For more information about nutrition and care see: Bed Sores Guidelines


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    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index

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