MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Information
Red Palm Fruit Oil & Palm Kernel Oil
PALM OIL DESCRIPTION
Palm oil, known as Red Palm Oil, is an edible plant oil and is derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). It is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. It is not to be confused with palm kernel oil derived from the kernel of the same fruit, or coconut oil derived from the kernel of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). The differences are in color (raw palm kernel oil lacks carotenoids and is not red), and in saturated fat content: Palm mesocarp oil is 41% saturated, while Palm Kernel oil and Coconut oil are 81% and 86% saturated respectively.
Palm oil, along with coconut oil, is one of the few highly saturated vegetable fats. It is semi-solid at room temperatures and contains several saturated and unsaturated fats in the forms of glyceryl laurate (0.1%, saturated), myristate (1%, saturated), palmitate (44%, saturated), stearate (5%, saturated), oleate (39%, monounsaturated), linoleate (10%, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenate (0.3%, polyunsaturated). Like all vegetable oils, palm oil does not contain cholesterol, although saturated fat intake increases both LDL and HDL cholesterol.
Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient in the tropical belt of Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of Brazil. Its increasing use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world is buoyed by its lower cost and the high oxidative stability (saturation) of the refined product when used for frying.
The use of palm oil in food products attracts the concern of environmental activist groups; the high oil yield of the trees have led, in parts of Indonesia, to removal of forestry in order to make space for oil-palm monoculture. This has resulted in acreage losses of the natural habitat of the orangutan. Consumer pressure could encourage palm oil companies to modify their practices. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, an international non-profit association, that brings together conservation groups and palm-oil firms, says that it "will not certify oil grown on land that was deforested to farm the crop."
PALM OIL HISTORY
Human use of oil palms may date as far back as 5,000 years; in the late 1800s, archaeologists discovered palm oil in a tomb at Abydos dating back to 3,000 BCE. It is believed that Arab traders brought the oil palm to Egypt.
Palm oil from Elaeis guineensis has long been recognized in West African countries, and is widely used as a cooking oil. European merchants trading with West Africa occasionally purchased palm oil for use as a cooking oil in Europe, but palm oil was not able to supplant olive oil or butter, and culinary uses of palm oil remained rare outside West Africa until after commercial oil palm plantation development in non-African tropical regions. In the Asante Confederacy, state-owned slaves built large plantations of oil palm trees, while in the neighbouring Kingdom of Dahomey, King Ghezo passed a law in 1856 forbidding his subjects from cutting down oil palms.
Palm oil became a highly sought-after commodity by British traders, for use as an industrial lubricant for machinery during Britain's Industrial Revolution. Palm oil formed the basis of soap products, such as Lever Brothers' (now Unilever) "Sunlight" soap, and the American Palmolive brand. By around 1870, palm oil constituted the primary export of some West African countries, such as Ghana and Nigeria, although this was overtaken by cocoa in the 1880s.
In the 1960s, research and development (R&D) in oil palm breeding began to expand after Malaysia's Department of Agriculture established an exchange program with West African economies and four private plantations formed the Oil Palm Genetics Laboratory. The Malaysian government also established Kolej Serdang, which became the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM) in the 1970s to train agricultural and agroindustrial engineers and agribusiness graduates to conduct research in the field.
In 1979 with support from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) and UPM, the government set up the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (Porim), a public-and-private-coordinated institution. B.C. Sekhar was appointed founder and chairman. Porim's scientists work in oil palm tree breeding, palm oil nutrition and potential oleochemical use. Porim was renamed Malaysian Palm Oil Board in 2000.
PALM OIL USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
PALM OIL NUTRITION
Many processed foods contain palm oil as an ingredient. Much of the palm oil that is consumed as food is to some degree oxidized rather than in the fresh state, and this oxidation appears to be responsible for the health risk associated with consuming palm oil. Palm oil is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol just like any ordinary fat. It is high in saturated fatty acids. Palm oil gives its name to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid. Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a constituent of palm oil. Unrefined palm oil is a large natural source of tocotrienol, part of the vitamin E family. The approximate concentration of fatty acids in palm oil is given in the chart below.
FATTY ACID CONTENT OF PALM OIL TYPE OF FATTY ACID PERCENTAGE Myristic Saturated C 14 1.0% Palmitic Saturated C 16 43.5% Stearic Saturated C 18 4.3% Oleic Monounsaturated C 18 36.6% Linoleic Polyunsaturated C 18 9.1% Other / Unknown 5.5%
RED PALM OIL
For centuries. special palm trees in tropical, rainy Asia ad Africa supplied precious, deep red-orange oil from the pulp (mesocarp) of their fruit. This oil is known as Red Palm Oil and is rich in carotenoids and tocopherols. Red palm oil gets its name from its characteristic dark red color, which comes from carotenes, such as alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene, the same nutrients that give tomatoes, carrots and other fruits and vegetables their rich colors. Red palm oil contains at least 10 other carotenes, along with tocopherols and tocotrienols (members of the vitamin E family), CoQ10, phytosterols, and glycolipids. In a 2007 animal study, South African scientists found consumption of red palm oil significantly decreased p38-MAPK phosphorylation in rat hearts subjected to a high-cholesterol diet.
Since the mid-1990s, red palm oil has been cold-pressed and bottled for use as cooking oil, and blended into mayonnaise and salad oil. Red palm oil antioxidants like tocotrienols and carotenes are added to foods and cosmetics because of their purported health benefits.
A 2009 study tested the emission rates of acrolein, a toxic and malodorous breakdown product from glycerol, from the deep-frying of potatoes in red palm, olive and polyunsaturated oils. The study found higher acrolein emission rates from the polyunsaturated oils (the scientists characterized red palm oil as "mono-unsaturated").
Natural Red Palm Oil is produced from the fruit of the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. This palm tree can be found in the wet, rainy areas of Africa, as well as the tropical rain forests of Asia. Natural Red Palm Oil comes from Malaysia which used to be considered the Palm Oil Capital of the World. Today, Indonesia has surpassed Malaysia in palm oil production, however, Indonesia has allowed the destruction of rainforest in their pursuit of palm oil production and they only produce refined palm oil products.
Red palm oil contains more beta-carotene, vitamin E and tocotrienols than any other oil. It remains stable when used for cooking. It is not hydrogenated, nor processed with solvents such as hexane, and does not contain any trans-fatty acids4
There are very few natural, great tasting, red palm oils available in America. Most palm oil in America has been refined, bleached and deodorized and does not exhibit any color. This is because during the refining process they remove all substances (other than the fatty acids) from the oil resulting in purified oil similar to many of the other refined oils currently in the standard American diet. Soybean oil, Corn oil, Safflower oil, and Canola oil are all refined oils found in grocery stores throughout America today. Unfortunately, this means all those carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols are not present in refined palm oil - they are removed by the refining process. However, if a palm oil is not refined, then it is a crude palm oil which contains a rancid taste. Neither option is ideal.
REFINED, BLEACHED, DEODORIZED PALM OIL
After milling, various palm oil products are made using refining processes. First is fractionation, with crystallization and separation processes to obtain solid (stearin), and liquid (olein) fractions. Then melting and degumming removes impurities. Then the oil is filtered and bleached. Next, physical refining removes smells and coloration, to produce "refined bleached deodorized palm oil," or RBDPO, and free sheer fatty acids, which are used in the manufacture of soaps, washing powder and other products. RBDPO is the basic oil product sold on the world's commodity markets, although many companies fractionate it further to produce palm olein for cooking oil, or process it into other products.
OTHER PALM OIL USES
Derivatives of palmitic acid were used in combination with naphtha during World War II to produce napalm (aluminum naphthenate and aluminum palmitate).
Many processed foods contain palm oil as an ingredient. The highly saturated nature of palm oil, while undesirable from the health perspective, renders it solid at room temperature in temperate regions, making it a cheap substitute for butter in uses where solid fat is desirable, such as the making of pastry dough and baked goods: in this respect, it is less of a health-hazard than the alternative substitute of partially hydrogenated trans-fat.
Splitting of oils and fats by hydrolysis, or under basic conditions saponification, yields fatty acids, with glycerin (glycerol) as a byproduct. The split-off fatty acids are a mixture ranging in carbon chain length from C4 to C18, depending on the type of oil or fat.
Palm oil, like other vegetable oils, can be used to create biodiesel, as either a simply processed palm oil mixed with petrodiesel, or processed through transesterification to create a palm oil methyl ester blend, which meets the international EN 14214 specification. Glycerin is a byproduct of transesterification. The actual process used to produce biodiesel around the world varies between countries and the requirements of different markets. Next-generation biofuel production processes are also being tested in relatively small trial quantities.
The IEA predicts biofuels usage in Asian countries will remain modest. But as a major producer of palm oil, the Malaysian government is encouraging the production of biofuel feedstock and the building of palm oil biodiesel plants. Domestically, Malaysia is preparing to change from diesel to biofuels by 2008, including drafting legislation that will make the switch mandatory.
From 2007, all diesel sold in Malaysia must contain 5% palm oil. Malaysia is emerging as one of the leading biofuel producers, with 91 palm oil plants approved and a handful now in operation. On 16 December 2007, Malaysia opened its first biodiesel plant in the state of Pahang, with an annual capacity of 100,000 tonnes, and which also produces byproducts in the form of 4,000 tonnes of palm fatty acid distillate and 12,000 tonnes of pharmaceutical-grade glycerine. Neste Oil of Finland plans to produce 800,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year from Malaysian palm oil in a new Singapore refinery from 2010, which will make it the largest biofuel plant in the world, and 170,000 tpa from its first second-generation plant in Finland from 2007-8, which can refine fuel from a variety of sources. Neste and the Finnish government are using this paraffinic fuel in some public buses in the Helsinki area as a small scale pilot.
First generation biodiesel production from palm oil is in demand globally. Palm oil is also a primary substitute for rapeseed oil in Europe, which too is experiencing new demand for biodiesel purposes. Palm oil producers are investing heavily in the refineries needed for biodiesel. In Malaysia, companies have been merging, buying others out and forming alliances to obtain the economies of scale needed to handle the high costs caused by increased feedstock prices. New refineries are being built across Asia and Europe.
As the food vs. fuel debate mounts, research is turning to biodiesel production from waste. In Malaysia, an estimated 50,000 tonnes of used frying oils, both vegetable oils and animal fats, are disposed of yearly, without treatment, as wastes. In a 2006 study, researchers found used frying oil (mainly palm olein), after pretreatment with silica gel, is a suitable feedstock for conversion to methyl esters by catalytic reaction using sodium hydroxide. The methyl esters produced have fuel properties comparable to those of petroleum diesel, and can be used in unmodified diesel engines.
A 2009 study by scientists at Malaysian Science University concluded palm oil, compared to other vegetable oils, is a healthy source of edible oil and at the same time, available in quantities that can satisfy global demand for biodiesel. Oil palm planting and palm oil consumption circumvents the food vs. fuel debate because it has the capacity to fulfill both demands simultaneously. By 2050, a British scientist estimates global demand for edible oils will probably be around 240 million tonnes, nearly twice 2008 consumption. Most of the additional oil may be palm oil, which has the lowest production cost of the major oils, but soybean oil production will probably also increase. An additional 12,000,000 hectares (46,000 sq mi) of oil palms may be required, if average yields continue to rise as in the past. This need not be at the expense of forest; oil palm planted on anthropogenic grassland could supply all the oil required for edible purposes in 2050.
This information about Palm Oil was obtained from Wikipedia: Palm Oil. For complete and updated article as well as all citations, please view their page.
ORGANIC PALM FRUIT OIL PROFILE
Mountain Rose Herbs organic extra virgin Palm Fruit Oil is pressed from the ripened fruit of the palm tree Elaeis guineensis. It is a rich source of Vitamin E oil and antioxidants, and is stable against heat and oxidation. Palm Fruit Oil is commonly used in food products as a healthier alternative when compared with other higher saturated oils, and is seldom used in cosmetic and bodycare products to help extend the shelf life.
Botanical Name: Elaeis Guineensis Origin: Brazil Extraction: Cold Pressed / Unrefined Shelf Life: 18 months Kosher Certified: Yes Notes: Will melt at about 80 to 90°F and turn to liquid. This particular oil is unrefined and extra virgin. No chemicals or solvents are used during the extraction of our Palm Fruit Oil. Suitable for both food and cosmetic use and popularly used in baking, frying, food mixes, coatings, ice cream and many more. Mountain Rose Herbs will only support Palm Fruit oil programs which adhere to strict environmental sustainability programs. As is our standard, the harvester and manufacturer of the Palm Fruit oil we offer adheres to highly detailed sustainable harvesting protocols with oversight from state and third party environmental programs including EcoSocial, and with the assistance of the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil.
Free Fatty Acids- 2.37
Peroxide Value- 1.61
Iodine Value- 52.46
Melting Point- 80 to 90°F
NUTRITIONAL VALUES (Per 100 gram sample)
Energy- 867 kcal
Total Fat- 100g
The above product information description was obtained from Mountain Rose Herbs regarding their products. For other manufacturers, merchants and vendors, consult individual product label description.
ORGANIC PALM KERNEL OIL PROFILE
Mountain Rose Herbs organic Palm Kernel Oil is pressed from the fruit kernels of the palm tree Elaeis guineensis. It is most commonly found in handmade soap to increase its lather and hardness. It may also be used in a multitude of other cosmetic and bodycare products for its moisturizing properties.
Botanical Name: Elaeis Guineensis Origin: Brazil Extraction: Expeller Pressed / Refined Shelf Life: 18 Months Kosher Certified: No Notes: Will melt at 80 to 82°F and turn to liquid. This particular oil is refined through organic methods involving mechanical pressing. Recommended for cosmetic and soapmaking use only.
Mountain Rose Herbs will only support Palm Fruit oil programs which adhere to strict environmental sustainability programs. As is our standard, the harvester and manufacturer of the Palm Fruit oil we offer adheres to highly detailed sustainable harvesting protocols with oversight from state and third party environmental programs including EcoSocial, and with the assistance of the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil.
Free Fatty Acids- 0.012
Peroxide Value- Less than 0.018
Rancimat Value- 7.97
Non-Saponifiables- Less than 0.01
Saponification Value- 244
Iodine Value- 19.41-
Specific Gravity- 0.91
Melting Point- 80 to 82deg;F
The above product information description was obtained from Mountain Rose Herbs regarding their products. For other manufacturers, merchants and vendors, consult individual product label description.
PALM HERBAL OIL PRODUCTS
QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS
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PALM FRUIT & KERNEL HERBAL OIL PRODUCTS
MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS
Mountain Rose Herbs: Palm Kernal Oil, Bulk Organic Carrier & Vegetable Oils
Mountain Rose Herbs: Palm Fruit Oil, Bulk Organic Carrier & Vegetable Oils
HerbsPro: Red Palm Oil 100X, For Cardiovascular & Brain Health Support, Jarrow Formulas, 30 SoftGels
HerbsPro: Red Palm Oil, Only Natural, For Weight Management, 1000 mg, 60 Softgels
HerbsPro: Red Palm Oil, BioNutrition Inc, 90 Softgels
HerbsPro: Complete Red Palm Oil, Dynamic Health Labs, 1000 mg, 90 Softgels
HerbsPro: Organic Red Palm Oil, Nutiva, 15 oz
A buttery culinary oil for sauces, sauteing and baking. USDA organic antioxidant Vitamins A & E. Use 1 to 2 tablespoons of red palm oil daily. Red palm oil will naturally separate. No refrigeration required; easier to spoon if chilled. Solidifies at cooler temperatures. To melt, place jar in warm water. Specks and variations of color and consistency occur naturally in this oil.
HerbsPro: Red Palm Oil, BioNutrition Inc, 15 oz.
HerbsPro: Coconut Palm Sugar, FunFresh Foods, 8.4 oz
All natural sweetener, glycemic index support.
Kalyx: Red Palm Oil, Organic, Unrefined, Nutiva, 15 oz Glass Jars (Case of 6): K
Kalyx: Palm Oil, Good Foods, 5 Gallons: GR
Palm oil is an ingredient that can be found in many food products such as dry mixes for cakes and biscuits and as a fat substitute in condensed and powdered milk products. Palm oil is also considered one of the best oils for frying foods because it can resist high temperatures and does not produce any unpleasant odors. This oil is also commonly used in non-food products such as soaps, detergents, candles and cosmetics. Each case consists of five gallons.
Amazon: Palm Kernel Oil Products
Aromatherapy: Palm Fruit & Kernel Herbal Oil Information
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